Homage to S. R. Ranganathan a Great Seer on 124th Birth Anniversary (1892-2016): Remembering his contributions!

August 9, 2016

 

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Source of Image: http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-in-school/remembering-the-father-of-library-sciences-in-india/article5013358.ece

 

by

Dr Achala Munigal

Asst. Prof. (LIS)/Asst. Librarian

NERTU, Osmania University,

Hyderabad, Telangana State

AchalaMunigalRao@gmail.com

 

Abstract:

Homage to the great seer of Library and Information Sciences – Padmashri Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan (12 August 1892 – 27 September 1972) who is the doyen of library movement in India and popularly known as Father of Indian Library Science for his immense unparalleled contributions to field.   Library professionals celebrate SRR birth anniversary on any of the days falling between 9-12 August every year. Various events, meetings, Seminars, Conferences, Workshops, Symposia etc. are held to commemorate this day and remember his contributions to librarianship.

 

About:

Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan (SRR) was first child of father N. Ramamrita Ayyar and mother Seethalakshmi Ammal; born on 9th August 1892 in a small town called Shiyali (currently known as Sirkazhi) in Tanjavoor (currently Nagapattinam) district of erstwhile Madras Presidency (currently Tamil Nadu) in Southern India. But the official records display his birthdate as 12th August – on basis of which National Librarians Day is celebrated every year.

 

SRR’s ‘Aksharabyasam’ – a ceremony held by Hindu families as first step in education was conducted in 1897. He attended the Sabhanayaka Mudaliar’s Hindu High School at Shiyali and passed Matriculation examination in 1908/09 after which he joined Madras Christian College for intermediate 1909-10. He completed B.A. in year 1913 and M.A. in Mathematics in 1916. After education, he wanted to be a teacher in mathematics so took teaching technique course from 1916-17 in Professional Education, Teachers’ College, Saidapet, Madras and later L.T. degree in year 1917.

 

 

After education was completed SRR was appointed to the Subordinate Education Service in 1917 and worked as Assistant Lecturer in the Government College in Mangalore and later at Coimbatore till where he taught Physics and Mathematics. In 1921, he joined the Presidency College, Madras as Assistant Professor of Mathematics where he taught Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics. He enjoyed teaching and was a popular teacher undertaking a lot of activities during his time.

 

In 1923 a position of librarian was created in Madras University and applications were called for the post. One of SRR’s friend persuaded him to apply for it which SRR did so, albeit a little reluctantly. There were 900 applicants but unfortunately for SRR none met the research requirements of committee other than him. In January 1924 he was appointed as the first librarian of Madras University. He was reluctant to take on an administrative position as he loved teaching and within a week was back pleading Principal for his old teaching job. But the Principal pacified him by promising to take him back if he felt the same way after his return from England as recounted in “A librarian looks back” published in ‘Herald of Library Science’ in 1963.

 

He had a strong work ethic and never let his disinterest come in way of work. He left for England in 1924 for 9 months on study-cum-observation tour where he met and trained as apprentice with W.C. Berwick Sayers, Chief Librarian of Croydon Public Library and completed Honors Certificate in School of Librarianship, University College of London. During his time in London he came across a toy erector set Meccano at Selfridges departmental store in London which inspired him to draft the Colon Classification where various elements could be combined to meet specific needs which he applied in giving classification number using PMEST combination. On the tour he visited over a hundred libraries which made a lasting impression on his mind and changed his outlook toward libraries and from then on he was like a man on a mission. He returned back to India with renewed interest and reorganised the university library. He took upon himself to educate people about benefits of reading and slowly evolved the library as hub of activity. He provided many services to attract users to library by adopting a holistic approach.

 

SRR donned many hats – that of a mathematics teacher, librarian, library science faculty, author, editor and above all a crusader who worked tirelessly for development of libraries in India as he believed it to be essential in development of the nation. Due to his efforts the library movement in South India is said to have strong roots reflecting on spread of public library network. SRR drafted a comprehensive visionary 30 year plan for the development of library system for India in 1946. Because of SSR’s interest and dedication Madras became the first state in India to enact the Madras Public Library Act in 1957.

 

SRR started out working as a librarian in Madras University Library between years 1924-44. In 1945 he sought voluntary retirement. But retirement was not for SRR, he was invited by the then Vice-Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University (BHU) Sir S. Radhakrishnan to develop a library system; where he worked as a Librarian and Professor of Library Science from 1945-47.  SRR received yet another invite from Vice-Chancellor of University of Delhi for teaching there from 1947-55.

 

He was honoured with D. Litt. (Honoris causa), Delhi University in 1948 and D. Litt. (Honoris causa) from University of Pittsburgh, USA in 1964.

 

 

SRR served in various capacities and contributed to corpus of knowledge on the National and international level.

 

SRR had extensive experience in developing libraries, hence was invited as an expert/consultant by many universities to suggest library development plan like University of Delhi in 1942, Nagpur University and University of Allahabad in 1946, University of Bombay in 1948, University of Mysore in 1956 and Bangalore University in 1966.

 

SRR worked tirelessly to promote and professionalise the library education in India. He felt the need for formal education in LIS and initiated setting up of various schools. In 1929 started the School of Librarianship of the Madras Library Association and the School of Library Science at the University of Madras in 1931. Diploma Course in Library Science in Banaras in 1945, Bachelor in Library Science in Delhi 1947 and Masters in Library Science in Delhi 1950

 

SRR was on various committees and played a key role in its founding and development. He founded Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre (INSDOC) in Delhi in 1950 and Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore under the auspices of the Indian Statistical Institute in 1962. He relocated to Bangalore in 1957.

 

SRR served as visiting/honorary lecturer/professor at various national and international universities. He contributed as visiting professor in 1948 at UNESCO International School for Public Librarianship, Manchester; in 1956 for library school(s) in United Kingdom; 1957-59 in Vikram University, Ujjain; 1958 for library school(s) in United States of America, Canada and Japan; and 1963 for library schools(s) University of Pittsburgh. He worked in DRTC as Honorary Professor till 1972.

 

SRR undertook many library tours in India and abroad including United Kingdom in 1925; Kerala and South Kanara in 1945; Western Europe, United Kingdom, and United States of America in 1948; Western Europe and United States of America in 1950; Ceylon 1952; United Yugoslavia and West Germany in 1956; East Germany Kingdom in 1955; United States of America, Canada, and Japan in 1957; United States of America, Poland, and Russia in 1959; France, East Germany, and West Germany in 1961; as well as Western Europe and United States of America.

 

Not only nationally but he made an impact internationally too with his contributions. His reputation extended beyond the borders of his country. Eugene Garfield, founder of the Institute for Scientific Information, wrote that SRR is “without question, one of the luminaries of library science” and has had a “revolutionary impact on international classification theory.” He made a lot of international connections like Donker-Duyvis, who was the then Secretary-General of International Federation for Documentation (FID).

 

SRR became Rapporteur-general, FID/CA (Committee on General Theory of Classification of the International Federation for Documentation) from 1951-61 and Honorary Chairman, FID/CR (Committee on Classification Research of the  International Federation for Documentation) in year 1963 and honorary president of the Second International Conference on Classification Research, held in Elsinore, Denmark in 1964. K. G. B. Bakewell called him “one of the immortals of library science.

 

He was tireless in his efforts and was often accused of being a workaholic or ‘Karmayogi’. It is said that he consistently worked 13-hour days, seven days a week, without taking a vacation for the entire time he worked in Madras University. Another most shared fact that reflects his dedication was that he returned to work the afternoon he got married after the ceremony. His was a lifetime of selfless commitment towards betterment of the discipline he grew fond of. Like a yogi he concentrated his whole body, spirit and mind in discipline of library and information sciences and worked towards its development.

 

He was a prolific writer with over 1200 research papers, 53 books and was editor for 5 periodical publications; associate editor of 1; and editorial board of 2 journals and editor of 2 books in his lifetime.

 

The most famous books listing include

  1. Five Laws of Library Science (1931)
  2. Colon Classification (1933)
  3. Classified Catalogue Code (1934)
  4. Library Administration (1935)
  5. Prolegomena to Library Classification (1937)
  6. Theory of the Library Catalogue (1938)
  7. Elements of Library Classification (1945)
  8. Classification and International Documentation (1948)
  9. Classification and Communication (1951)

 

He was the editor of two books ‘Documentation and its facets’ in 1963 and ‘Social science research and libraries’ in 1960.
He was an Editor of following journals including ‘Abigila’, Indian Library Association 1949-53; ‘Annals of Library Science’ from 1954-63; and ‘Library Science with a Slant to Documentation’ 1964-72. Associate Editor of ‘Libri’ in year 1951. He was on editorial board of ‘Modern Librarian’ 1937-47 and ‘Indian Librarian’ 1947. Conducted Memoirs, Madras Library Association 1939-1944 and American Documentation 1959

 

One of the most notable contributions to the field are five laws of library science proposed in 1931.

  1. Books are for use.
  2. Every reader his / her book.
  3. Every book its reader.
  4. Save the time of the reader.
  5. The library is a growing organism.

 

Although the above statements were self-evident; the librarians during that time did not get the full import of it due to the culture prevalent then of custodianship. But SRR laws help ensure the service orientedness of libraries. Full text of ‘Five Laws of Library Science’ is available at Hathi Trust Digital Library at http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.$b99721 under Rights: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives. 

 

Pauline Atherton, in reference to Five Laws of Library Science is quoted as saying, “these words stir students to think of and believe in library service above library work as their life goal.” (ALA, 1980)

 

Based on SRR’s Five laws various variants were proposed!

In 1998 Michael Gorman slightly tweaked SRR’s 5 laws and presented the changes in his book “Our Singular Strengths” at http://librarysciencedegree.usc.edu/resources/infographics/dr-s-r-ranganathans-five-laws-of-library-science

  1. Libraries serve humanity.
  2. Respect all forms by which knowledge is communicated.
  3. Use technology intelligently to enhance service.
  4. Protect free access to knowledge.
  5. Honor the past and create the future.

 

In 2004 Alireza Noruzi applied SRRs laws to the web and presented it the paper “Application of Ranganathan’s Laws to the Web” at http://www.webology.org/2004/v1n2/a8.html

  1. Web resources are for use.
  2. Every user has his or her web resource.
  3. Every web resource its user.
  4. Save the time of the user.
  5. The Web is a growing organism

 

In 2008 Carol Simpson applied the five laws to the media rich resources increasingly being procured in libraries and posted it on her website at http://www.carolsimpson.com/5laws.pdf

  1. Media are for use.
  2. Every patron his information.
  3. Every medium its user.
  4. Save the time of the patron.
  5. The library is a growing organism

 

In 2015 B Shadrach had addressed library professionals on the 123rd birth anniversary of SRR and presented his SRRs five laws rewritten so that its applicable to all people, societies, states and governments in this digital era.

  1. Knowledge is for use in ‘all’ forms
  2. Every citizen has the right to access ‘all’ knowledge
  3. Every piece of knowledge is for access by ‘all’ without discrimination of any kind
  4. Save the time of the ‘all’ knowledge seekers
  5. A library is one that evolves with time to achieve all of the above laws

 

I would like to present my take on SRR’s five laws in 2016 on my blog at https://achalamunigal.wordpress.com/2016/08/09/homage-to-s-r-ranganathan-a-great-seer-on-124th-birth-anniversary-1892-2016-remembering-his-contributions/ . Applying the five laws to use of social media in libraries by librarians!

  1. Social Media is for use – increasingly in libraries by librarians
  2. Every user his/her Social Tool
  3. Every Social Tool its user
  4. Save time of user by providing information he/she seeks using the social tool he/she is familiar with.
  5. Social Media is a growing organism. With various tools and apps being introduced every day. Libraries are not brick and stone anymore. They serve members and non-members alike in terms of non-traditional library services; irrespective of space and time.

 

There are various library professionals who remember SSR’s contribution by creating accounts on various social media like

 

Another important contribution of SSR is Colon Classification (CC) published in 1933 is the first faceted or analytico-synthetic library classification developed by SRR. The name CC comes from use of colon (:) to separate the facets Personality, Matter, Energy, Space, Time (PMEST). Colon Classification was designed from 1924 to 1928 and was first published in 1933 by the Madras Library Association.  6th edition was the last one to be published when he was alive and is considered most popular. SRR published a preview of the proposed 7th edition in 1969 but sadly passed away in 1972 before 7th edition was published. The work of revision of scheme was undertaken by SRR’s associates under Sarada Ranganathan Endowment for Library Science (SRELS) and revised 7th edition was brought out in 1987 but unfortunately it was not a complete edition as it had no index!

 

Many library professionals still support teaching CC for following reasons

  1. Because an Indian had introduced it to the world and we as librarians from India should be proud of it! We should ensure that CC is not lost in obscurity in sands of time!
  2. Jobs are available (National and International libraries following CC)
  3. Its application in the Internet era!

 

The following libraries had implemented CC as SRR had worked in these places – initially as University Librarian at Madras University 1924-44 followed by Banaras Hindu University where he worked as librarian and professor of Library Science 1945–47 and later again as Professor of Library Science in University of Delhi 1947–55 so had implemented CC in all those libraries.

 

There are almost 18 libraries in India following colon classification listed at https://achalamunigal.wordpress.com/2016/06/25/libraries-in-india-following-colon-classification/

 

His personal life was also exemplary and an inspiration to all. SRR got married a second time in 1929 to Sarada who and was blessed with one son, Yogeswar, born in 1932. His wife Sarada was very supportive of his dedication to his profession. He recognised her support and contributions in his life in 1956 during centenary celebrations of the University where he donated his life’s savings of one lakh rupees and endowed a Chair under his wifes name as “Sarada Ranganathan Chair of Library Science’, University of Madras. Most of his salary as National Research Professor and the royalties on his books were also donated to the Chair. In 1961 ‘Sarada Ranganathan Endowment for Library Science’, incorporated with the Treasurer for Charitable Endowments in India.

 

Keeping in view his various wonderful contributions the Indian government bestowed on him the honorific title ‘Rao Sahib’ in 1935. He was also awarded ‘Padmashri’ in 1957 for his invaluable contributions to Library Science.  Government of India recognised him as ‘National Research Professor in Library Science’ in 1965 when there were only four other professors in India during that time. He is known as ‘Father of Indian Library Science’ for his immense unparalleled contributions to field.

 

Bouquets and Brickbats

  • SRR formed the Madras Library Association in 1928 and was its founder secretary.
  • In 1931, SRR envisioned India’s first bookmobile which was a two-wheeled cart to deliver library services to rural areas. S. V. Kankasabai Pillai, a Sub Engineer was inspired by SRR and designed a bullock cart to be used as a bookmobile containing books, maps, charts, and a gramophone with records and operated within 10 mile radius for close to 10 years. In 1962 SRR proposed using a ‘librachine’ which used a motor van instead of bullock cart; having a professional librarian and circulation librarian to access remote areas.

 

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Source of image: http://eduscapes.com/history/contemporary/1930.htm)

 

  • He founded ILA in 1933 and was its president till 1953 and enrolled himself as the first life member of ILA
  • Sir Maurice Gwyer, Vice-Chancellor of University of Delhi who described SRR as “A Prince among librarians
  • Honorary Fellow, Virginia Bibliographic Society in 1951.
  • Was Patron, Delhi Library Association 1954.
  • In 1956 was Honorary Member, Indian Association of Special Libraries and Information Centers
  • He was bestowed with 1957 Padmashree, Government of India
  • He was engaged in research and writing in Zürich from 1954-57
  • 1957 Honorary Vice-President, Library Association (London) and Honorary Fellow, International Federation for Documentation
  • 1962 Founder-Patron, Mysore Library Association, Bangalore
  • In honour of his 71st birthday, his colleagues dedicated a 2 volume Festschrift published by Asia Publishing House, Bombay. Volume 1: Kaula, P. N., Library Science Today, 1966 and Volume 2: Das Gupta, A. K., Essay in Personal Bibliography, 1967.
  • He was the Chairman of Documentation (Sectional) Committee of the Indian Standards Institution, New Delhi from 1947-66.
  • In 1967 got Honorary Fellow from Indian Standards Institution (ISI)
  • In 1970, he received the Margaret Mann Citation in Cataloging and Classification from the American Library Association (ALA).
  • In 1971 got Grand Knight of Peace from Mark Twain Society, USA
  • In 1976, FID established the Ranganathan award in his memory for outstanding contribution in the field of classification
  • The Philately division, Department of Post, Government of India, released a Postal Stamp in SRR honour at the Official Opening of IFLA General Conference on 30 August 1992.

 

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Source of image: http://www.stampsathi.in/php/public/stamps-gallery.php?page=171

 

Everything was not hunky dory all the time in SRRs life. It is said that SSR faced a lot of hardships and unfortunate events.

  • It is said that SRR was hindered few health issues and also by the handicap of stammering which he gradually overcame.
  • His father passed away when he was only 6 years old.
  • His wife Rukmini died in a freak accident in 1928 with whom he had got married when he was barely 15 years old in 1907.
  • He suffered persecution for many years at the hands of Madras university’s administration. SRR retired from his position early at age of 54 years due to conflicts arising with a new university vice-chancellor and submitted resignation
  • He had a brief bout with depression after leaving Madras University before taking up position at BHU.
  • It was embarrassing for SRR to realise after he became the President of ILA that President had no powers except preside over the general body meeting once in two years at EC meeting held in Patna in 1946 and soon an amendment to the constitution was made where functions of the President were clearly laid-down giving custodianship of full control over the affairs of the Association and adopted in 1949 at the Nagpur Conference.
  • In the final years of his life, SRR succumbed to ill health, and confined to bed leading to his death due to complications frombronchitis on 27 September 1972.

 

There is much to be learned from him. Even though he was from a small town and hindered with hardships he never let it reflect on work; but he went on to influence the world. The tyros and neophytes in our discipline have much to learn from his simple living and high thinking approach to life in general and library science in particular. He was passionate about his work and mentored and encouraged intelligent students in their endeavours. He created an atmosphere of learning similar to a Gurukula where new ideas were generated with discussions.

 

Librarians of today have vague awareness of this great personality. We only remember him every August when we pay floral tributes as a token of our respect. But we need to understand that Librarianship is at this stage only because of efforts of SRR and many more such luminaries of our profession. Before SRR, libraries were only repositories and librarians were untrained custodians. It was SRR who gave direction and propelled Indian librarianship into the twentieth century and his views on libraries and librarianship are significant and relevant even today .

 

There are numerous quotes listed at http://www.isibang.ac.in/~library/portal/Pages/srrm.htm

 

The best way to pay homage to SRR is to take the torch forward by establishing benchmarking in librarianship and teaching methods; standardised policy and taking part in active decision making for libraries by lobbying in government, implementing Public Library Act for every State in India, publish good quality research books, start well-equipped libraries in schools and ensuring that the world does not forget Colon Classification by ensuring its survival through its use and updation of the colon classification system with a proper index!

 

Jesse Shera rightly said, “That one cannot properly judge the work of S. R. Ranganathan without referencing to the totality of librarianship is a tribute to the breadth and depth of his contribution to the profession.” (ALA, 1980)

 

Let us all remember Dr. S R Ranganathan who is the father of LIS profession in India today and everyday.

 

Source:

 

 

 

NOTE: THIS ARTICLE WAS SIMULTANEOUSLY PUBLISHED ONLINE ON MY BLOG IN ENGLISH AT https://achalamunigal.wordpress.com/2016/08/09/homage-to-s-r-ranganathan-a-great-seer-on-124th-birth-anniversary-1892-2016-remembering-his-contributions/

AND TRANSLATED VERSION IN ‘GRANTHALAYA SARASWAMU‘ IN TELUGU LANGUAGE IN PRINT AND CIRCULATED TO ITS MEMBERS.

Granthalaya Saraswamu” started in year 1915 is the second oldest LIS journal published in India. It was published by Andhra Desa Library Association in Telugu – a regional language of one of South Indian States undivided Andhra Pradesh (now split into Andhra Pradesh and Telangana State) by editor Sri Iyyanki Venkata Ramanaiah and  is still being published by editor Dr. Raavi Sarada under Andhra Pradesh Library Association (APLA) from Vijaywada, Andhra Pradesh. It was later renamed “Andhra Granthalayam” between years 1939 to 1941 and revived as  “Granthalaya Saraswamu”  in year 1948. ISSN 0972-8104. More Details available at http://apla.tecra.com/about.html

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In response to….

August 4, 2016

PM Narendra Modi has sought ideas and suggestions for the Independence Day speech. http://www.narendramodi.in/contribute-your-insights-for-pms-speech-on-70th-independence-day-504987

In response to that….
Sir,

I would request you include importance of libraries in your address to nation on 70th Independence Day.

I want you to strengthen libraries and empower librarians.

 

To empower rural India – improve libraries

To empower women – improve libraries
To improve education – improve libraries
Be counted in top 100 universities in world – improve libraries
Want high quality research output – improve libraries

You want to build a strong nation then strengthen libraries.

Dr Achala Munigal

 

Who owns copyright in OA articles published in Journals?

July 25, 2016

Why are authors required to sign copyright forms and submit to OA publishers?

Who owns copyright in OA articles published in OA Journals

Yes I’m a librarian……

July 22, 2016

Behind ever individual who is educated……
Is me, a librarian……

 

Stocking the library after perceiving user needs is

Is me, a librarian……

Utilising print documents, electronic media, Internet, social tools for benefit of all

Is me, a librarian……

Connecting with every social savvy ones on the social media…using computers and apps on mobile

Is me, a librarian……

 

Be it Sciences, Social Sciences, Humanities or Arts

Librarians are necessary in every discipline and are available everywhere…at all levels….
Exploring the imagination of a child in kindergarten with stories…

Is me, a librarian……

Catering to the confused teen(s) by providing what they wants even before they articulate it (by providing novels on vampires, wolves, half bloods, shape shifters, magicians, sorcerer, demigods, mutants novels and murder mysteries…nothing normal…all paranormal) in the library…

Is me, a librarian……

Extending spaces to the ignored shy ones and making them feel wanted…

Is me, a librarian……

Creating noisy spaces for those loud rambunctious ones for discussion away from the quiet spaces in library for the serious ones……

Is me, a librarian……

Catering to the geeks and the nerds

Is me, a librarian……

Teaching all those teachers,
Is me, a librarian……

Supporting all those researchers

Is me, a librarian……

Every academic venture undertaken….is supported by me….a librarian

After all the academic study and research if a person needs to relax….books and information on distressing, hobbies, self help is provided by me …a librarian.

 

 

Spending time in public library with geriatrics …ignored by their family, relatives

Is me, a librarian………..

Providing not only information but a chat and smile

Is me, a librarian……

 

Curating and archiving material for posterity in museums

Is me, a librarian……

Providing data and statistics for every manager in the corporate…and top brass everywhere

Is me, a librarian……

 

Providing research material and support in all those special libraries

Is me, a librarian………..

Behind every engineer building wonderful things…

Is me, a librarian……

With every doctor treating patients (literally in evidence based practice and figuratively)

Is me, a librarian……

Behind every medicine made in pharma

Is me, a librarian……

Calculating with every accountant

Is me, a librarian……

Behind every code written for a software and every component manufacture in hardware

Is me, a librarian……

Behind that geologist excavating the earth….
Is me, a librarian……
Above in space with those astronomers…

Is me, a librarian……
On the road walking with common man….and driving with professionals from various professions …

Is me, a librarian……

Below in the submarine or torpedo accelerating towards target….

Is me, a librarian……

For strategic and tactical decision making….support material is provided to intelligence and military (police/army/navy/airforce)

Is me, a librarian……
For every successful satellite and a missile launched in space….

Is me, a librarian……

 

Behind progress of the country

Is me, a librarian……

I am a cog in the wheel along with other cogs contributing and supporting decision made at every level….
For every decision that matters…..librarians are the support system….

 

They say behind every successful man is a woman…

I say ‘behind every successful person is a library….and a librarian!’

To know more about me you can check out
http://www.AchalaMunigal.wordpress.com
http://www.twitter.com/DrAchala Munigal
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Yes I’m a librarian…… by Dr Achala Munigal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
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Do we need to Walk the Talk?

July 21, 2016

Should those advocating  Open Access (OA) publish ONLY in OA? #ethicaldilemma

Five Laws of Library Science and its variants!

July 5, 2016

In 1931 Siyali Ramamrita Ranganathan proposed his ‘Five Laws of Library Science’. Full text is available at Hathi Trust Digital Library under Rights: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives. 

  1. Books are for use.
  2. Every reader his / her book.
  3. Every book its reader.
  4. Save the time of the reader.
  5. The library is a growing organism.

 

Based on this Five laws various variants were proposed!

In 1998 Michael Gorman in his book “Our Singular StrengthsOur Singular Strengths

  1. Libraries serve humanity.
  2. Respect all forms by which knowledge is communicated.
  3. Use technology intelligently to enhance service.
  4. Protect free access to knowledge.
  5. Honor the past and create the future.

 

 

In 2004 Alireza Noruzi in his paper “Application of Ranganathan’s Laws to the Web

  1. Web resources are for use.
  2. Every user has his or her web resource.
  3. Every web resource its user.
  4. Save the time of the user.
  5. The Web is a growing organism

 

In 2008 Carol Simpson in her website posted

  1. Media are for use.
  2. Every patron his information.
  3. Every medium its user.
  4. Save the time of the patron.
  5. The library is a growing organism

 

In 2015 B Shadrach

  1. Knowledge is for use in ‘all’ forms
  2. Every citizen has the right to access ‘all’ knowledge
  3. Every piece of knowledge is for access by ‘all’ without discrimination of any kind
  4. Save the time of the ‘all’ knowledge seekers
  5. A library is one that evolves with time to achieve all of the above laws

Directory of Library and Information Science Professionals

July 1, 2016

I have got an email asking me to include my details in “Directory of Library and Information Science Teachers in India” ! In the email/google form a “Teacher” is defined as a person who actively involved in teaching to the students to fulfill the need of a course / program that forms a part of their opted certificate / diploma / bachelor degree / master degree / research level programme in Library and Information Science.

Since I am a working librarian assigned the designation of Asst. Prof. (LIS), I am not eligble to be included in that particular directory! Although I did take a couple of sessions in DLIS, OU & GU and in various UGC HRDC …that does not matter I suppose….. Im not eligible! Details of sessions I have taken are at www.facebook.com/Dr.Achala.Munigal/

Anyway – since I got the link – was curious to know what details were included. On reviewing questions came across – Category of Caste! wonder why that particular option was included???
The following criteria which I think is important should be included in the above directory
1. Faculty specialise/expert in!
2. If they are working in Central/State/Quasi/Private?
3. Social Media presence for the Department/Library and also for librarians is not included
4. The following combination of people are also not included – retd librarians ‘still’ working as faculty/guest faculty, working librarians working as external/guest faculty!
I remember that I came across many other such efforts on preparing LIS Directories:
  1. Prof. A A N Raju, Former Head DLIS, OU H No C-10-63 Ghokle Nagar Ramathapur Hyd 500 013 also had undertaken to bring out Directory in Print
  2. Directory of library professionals in Karnataka is published by Dr. Shivanna, R. Rtd. Dy. Librarian (Bangalore University). (Source: Thimmappa Neerkaje)
  3. Directory of Library and Information Science Teachers in India in print
  4. Directory at Librarydotcom 
  5. IndiaLibraries Directory of Library & Information Science (LIS) Resource Persons 
  6. IndiaLibraries Facebook group 
  7. Inflibnet Vidwan Expert Database 
  8. Resource Persons / Experts in Library and Information Science
Why dont all LIS professional integrate their directory and make it into one directory that has current information of all LIS professionals in India at all levels?
Are any of the ‘numerous’ LIS Associations paying attention?
Probably one library association can take this up! Infact if all the Associations contribute their membership listing – a proper directory can be made!
There is no one single source to get information/statistics on how many libraries (National, Depository, Public/District, University, Corporate, Private) in India. I think only ADINET lists all libraries in Gujarat (2079). But efforts of rest of states not known!

Suggesting for prepare a Directory of 

  • LIS Departments in India
  • LIS staff at all levels in India
  • Librarians
  • LIS Faculty – which you already are preparing! I suggest you also include another feild – of what they specialise/expert in!
  • LIS Resource Persons – with specialisations (include faculty and working librarians) – which organisers of conferences can refer to
There is not a single place where LIS journals are listed. How many are open access and how many subscribed/commerical. One-day workshop on Wikipedia organised by Department of Library and Information Science (DLISc) and Research and Training Unit for Navigational Electronics (NERTU) Library, Osmania University (OU) in collaboration with Telugu Wikipedians, Centre for Internet Access to knowledge (CIS A2K) and Wikimedia India on 11 January 2016 at NERTU Conference Hall and the page List of LIS Journals in India was a collaborative output of that day!
There is no single place where we can get information on how many LIS conferences/seminars/workshops were conducted in India till date. The proceedings are also not housed in one place for reference! Although ICON-AD is doing a commendable contribution.
Wonder what all the Library Associations in India are doing!
Suggested Format: List out all LIS departments, libraries and library staff working under them at all levels.

 

India

  • National Library
  • Depository Library
  • Museum/Archives
  • Public Library – Statewise
  • District Library
  • Central University
    • LIS Department
    • Libraries
  • State University
    • LIS Deparments
    • Libraries
  • Private Organisations
    • LIS Departments – mostly Certificate and Diploma

Other Libraries

  • Special Libraries
    • Government Organisation Libraries
    • Military/Air/Naval/Police etc
    • Reserach and Training Libraries
  • Private Libraries
  • Corporate Libraries

 

Suggested: Crowdsource
If anyone is preparing any directories like the above, I can volunteer to populate all the information I know or come across in my spare time! You can get in touch with me at AchalaMunigalRao@gmail.com
To know more about me you can check out
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Interesting Articles on Library and Information Science

June 29, 2016
  1. A Tough Lesson to Learn http://lj.libraryjournal.com/blogs/annoyedlibrarian/2016/05/19/a-tough-lesson-to-learn/
  2. Being a librarian now means also being at least a part-time social worker https://timeline.com/being-a-librarian-now-means-also-being-at-least-a-part-time-social-worker-f56c0c87da96#.51mer5te5
  3. Do you know your self-worth? at https://indialibraries.wordpress.com/2016/06/09/do-you-know-your-self-worth/ 
  4. Exploitation of Library Professionals in India https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/exploitation-library-professionals-india-harsh-mehan?trk=hp-feed-article-title-publish
  5. In Age of Google, Librarians Get Shelved http://www.wsj.com/articles/in-age-of-google-librarians-get-shelved-1452461659
  6. In the Age of Google, Law Librarians Manage Your Time, People, and Money http://www.geeklawblog.com/2016/01/in-age-of-google-law-librarians-manage.html
  7. Librarians are Doomed Again http://lj.libraryjournal.com/blogs/annoyedlibrarian/2016/01/14/librarians-are-doomed-again/
  8. Library Associations Need to Do Better By the Members https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/library-associations-need-do-better-members-kimberley-wilson?trk=hp-feed-article-title-comment
  9. My Professional Adventures https://achalamunigal.wordpress.com/2016/06/15/my-professional-adventures/
  10. The seven deadly sins of librarianship http://www.slideshare.net/jwebbery/the-seven-deadly-sins-of-librarianship-63552215?qid=67ad1d71-0608-420d-989c-a0abc435a2dd&v=&b=&from_search=1
  11. What can I do? https://indialibraries.wordpress.com/…/31/what-can-i-do/
  12. What type of Library Professional are you? https://indialibraries.wordpress.com/2016/05/31/what-type-of-library-professional-are-you/
  13. Young Learners Need Librarians Not Just Google http://www.forbes.com/2010/03/22/moran-librarian-skills-intelligent-investing-google.html
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Criteria Recruiters look for in LIS graduates!

June 26, 2016

A librarian friend was recruiting library staff for her library. She requested me to forward couple of ‘bright’ freshly minted LIS graduates. Since I am so active on various social media I have both recruiters and students approach me. I asked her what she required. Her criteria was simple:

  1. Well Dressed
  2. Communication Skills
  3. Soft Skills
  4. Social Media savvy but not addicted to smartphones
  5. Common Sense – given priority – over gold medals

I asked her if she needed trained LIS graduates working as ‘Trainees’ or ‘Apprentices’. She said it was not necessary as her company would be training these new recruits in their company ‘culture’. They infact preferred untrained hands as it was easier to teach them rather having trained people unlearning what they had already imbibed in previous environment!

Students please note what the companies are looking out for.

That 90% marks is not a prefferred ‘mandatory’ quality as it can be got by ‘learning by rote or mugging’ or copying! Very few students actually understand the concept and get the 90% and these individuals are always placed in lucrative jobs. But the rest who are ‘average’ have a problem in placements as they are huge in number and get ‘average’ placements.

So what is the ‘X’ factor that will land you a ‘coveted’ job?

Note the above  factors mentioned in addition to constantly reading, searching and researching as well as updating oneself – on and with  – the various tools and technologies available that can be implemented in personal and professional sphere.

Firstly populate your social profiles like LinkedIn, Facebook and Academia.edu. LinkedIn as its an online CV that is seen by most recruiters who may get in touch with you offering you a job seeing your skill set.

Do not overshare or undershare information. Do not opinionate on any particular issue – be it possitive or negative. Try to share ‘mostly’ subject related information interspersed with personal photos and hobbies. These profiles are checked by ‘most’ recruiters now-a-days. If you constantly post selfies and second to second iternarary of what you are eating and where you have been – it is taken as self obsession and considered negative as recruiters would assume you would do the same on the job wasting companies valuable time. If you do not post regularly then it is taken as you are anti-social.So moderation is the key!

 

So next time when you attend and interview for a job, please keep this in mind.

You are ofcourse shortlisted due to the CV you had submitted. So ensure to give a updated CV/Resume/Bio. Always carry extra set of CV. It has been observed that ‘most’ people inflate and exagerate in the resume about their skills. So interviewer sets up an interview to see if you display the skill set you mentioned on paper.

Emphasis is given to dressing well as it is the first thing someone notices when they see you by then they do not have access to your marksheet for confirmation. An article on Forbes says “Did you know it takes only three to five seconds for someone to form a first impression? ” (Source: 5 Tips To Create A Positive First Impression ) . If you dress well and make a good first impression then half your battle is won! Follow Formal dress code. In Indian context it includes Saree or Kurta Pyjama for women and Shirt and Trousers for Men. It is frowned upon in most ‘Indian’ institutions to wear skirt although trousers is acceptable for women. Tie and suit is looked on favourably on men. Dont wear informal dresses or footwear or heavy jewellery. Professional attire without heavily accesorising. Well groomed appearence is a must for all.

But there are thousand others who have smiliar CV, marks and are also well dressed into bargain.

What is that sets you apart from the competition? 

When you enter the room where you are asked to sit till your turn comes.

Always remember – CCTVs are available in most offices and your entry and behaviour with fellow interviewees may be monitored to check candidates for leadership qualities or team working spirit. Display all your soft skills. Dont be too forceful or opinionated at the same time dont be mousy or hedge. Dont blend into the furniture. Most importantly dont stare at your smartphone or chat away giving secret smiles or play games! Try to have a confident demenour, interact with everyone, try to draw everyone into conversation, and dont take the spotlight all the time or talk about controversial issues like caste, politics, sex or religion.

Be ready before your turn comes. Switch off your mobile or put it in silent mode.

When your turn comes. Softly knock and wait for interviewer/interviewing panel to welcome you inside. If they do not invite you in….quietly go in.

Wish them as a group with a smile.  Dont grin. If you know someone in the room use your perception and body language of that person in question if it is beneficial to acknowledge them…. as it can go both ways. Better still, wait for them to make the first move.

Wait for one of the interviewers to invite you to take your chair. If they dont, do not keep standing. After a second -say ‘May I’ and take a chair in the middle.

Do not thrust your CV or certificate in their face. Wait till you are asked and provide relevant document. Do not bunch all documents together and hand over to them.

 

Next criteria is communication. If you can talk as well as you dress, then you can chalk another mark towards landing the job!

Do not  mumble or speak in a very loud voice. Both are off-putting! Speak in a modulated strong voice.

Dont give mono syllable answers or meander into a lengthy description! Be precise and answer to the point!

Dont lie. If you dont know something accept it. You can always tell that you will check it up later.

Check acceptable body language on youtube and practice it. Dont twist or wring hands nor shift in chair as it displays nervousness.

 

Things to prepare in advance to be able to answer to the interviewer questions

  1. Check their website indepth and monitor their social media posts
  2. Check the library webpage and orient with collection and various services already being provided and library management software implemented.
  3. Be well informed about current events – local, National and International. Read newspaper; watch news on TV update via news apps on mobile
  4. Know all journals that are relevant to the institution. Example its Engineering /Medical College or Defence institution – then arm yourself with related ‘popular’ journal titles.
  5. Become a member in various LIS Associaton of Local/National/International repute. Know latest developments in your feild. Know the list of LIS journals available. Incase there is a librarian/faculty on the panel.

 

Questions you may want to ask

  1. Is there a written agreement?
  2. Most important – find out the notice period! If notice period can be paid back?
  3. Will they keep your certificates with them?
  4. Can you get time to join as you have to serve notice period in the earlier job?
  5. What is the salary? Dont accept a job with very low salary that is not cominsurate with your qualifications and experience
  6. How many deductions?
  7. What are the additional perks?
  8. Is there accomodation?
  9. Is tea/lunch included?
  10. Is there a transport?
  11. What are the timings? Is there a shift system? Dont agree to extend timings of library without understanding implications…request time to study situation before making a commitment!
  12. What is the reporting structure?
  13. Who is the head?
  14. How many Library staff are there?
  15. How many are working in same position?
  16. How many support staff are available in library?
  17. What is the leave scenario? How many casual and medical leaves?
  18. Location of job?
  19. Budget of library?
  20. Ask by when they would get back to you?

Note: Do not ask all the questions in stacco mode shooting one off after another! Ask these questions depending on how the interview is progressing.  ‘Most’ of these questions may not be relevant for government job.

Preffered LIS related skills and knowledge on various tools

  1. Library Management Software
  2. Reference Management Software
  3. Social Media Monitoring Skills
  4. Knowledge of Apps
  5. Institutional Repository
  6. Open Resources
  7. IPR & Copyright

 

Remember that nobody will ask you 

  1. Practically write a catalogue card
  2. Give a number to a specific book orally without DDC. (Ofcourse a broad number may be asked)

 

Mostly questions asked are

  1. Tell us about yourself. Dont tell your life history. In few short sentences sum up your qualifications, work experiences and various notable contributions that are relevant to job at hand.
  2. 5 laws of library science? Its relevance in current scenario.
  3. What is difference between Online Library, Virtual Library, Digital Library? Or are they synonomous?
  4. What is WWW and Web and Internet? What is the similarity or difference?
  5. How will you increase footfalls in library? How will you increase reading habit?
  6. What library management softwares you are aware of? Talk about Open Access Library Management Softwares. Management loves it if you can save them money!
  7. Can you digitise the library? What hardware or software are used?
  8. How many books lost is acceptable in a library by its administration? Give ratio.
  9. What library services can you extend? Give a couple of innovative ideas.
  10. How can you generate money in a library?
  11. Which social tools can you implement in library?
  12. Why did you leave your previous job? Dont badmouth your previous employer however justified you feel.

 

Once the interview is done. Thank all the members on the panel and take leave closing the door quietly behind without banging it.

If you do not get a call. You can always call them up to check status. But dont hound them for information or seem desperate.

Incase they connect with you for second round with the HR. Always remember to bargain for the best possible salary keeping your personal situation in mind but do not demean the profession by accepting a low salary for the fear the job may go to someone else. If you take a low salary it will impact not only you but LIS professionals everywhere – even those who are yet to enter the profession.  Let us all unite and take a oath that we will fight for competitive salaries and designations that fit our qualifications and experience.

For Jobs Check out following links

  1. IndiaLibraries https://www.facebook.com/groups/LISJobScholarshipTrainingAdmission/
  2. Indian Librarian https://theindianlibrarian.blogspot.in/p/lis-jobs.html
  3. LIS Portal http://lisportal.com/
  4. Library  Soup http://library-soup.blogspot.com/
  5. LIS Links http://www.lislinks.com

 

For checking out sample resumes https://www.facebook.com/groups/CurriculumVitae.CV.Resume.BioOfLISProfessionals/

Please Note: The links listed here are culled out  for information only and are not endorsement.

All the best to all those who are attending interview. Hoping this post will be helpful to you. You can connect with me at AchalaMunigalRao@gmail.com

 

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Criteria Recruiters look for in LIS graduates! by Dr Achala Munigal is licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
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Libraries in India & World following Colon Classification

June 25, 2016

A friend and me got chatting and the topic turned around the syllabus of Library and Information Science Discipline. She was mentioning that the syllabus was outdated and that LIS departments are not equipping students with what is actually required on the job. She was lamenting about abundant LIS graduates with no proper employbility skill set. She was derisive of LIS faculty STILL teaching Cataloging, Sears Subject Heading, Univeral Decimal Classification (UDC), Colon Classification (CC) etc as most of the libraries are following Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC).

For the uninitiated, Colon Classification (CC) published in 1933 is the first faceted or analytico-synthetic library classification developed by Padmashri S R Ranganathan, who is known as Father of Library Science in India. The name CC comes from use of colon (:) to separate the facets Personality, Matter, Energy, Space, Time (PMEST).

 

Colon Classification was designed from 1924 to 1928 and was first published in 1933 by the Madras Library Association.  6th edition was the last one to be published when Ranganathan was alive. Ranganathan published a preview of the proposed 7th edition in 1969 but sadly passed away in 1972 before 7th edition was published. The work of revision of scheme was undertaken by Ranganathans associates under Sarada Ranganathan Endowment for Library Science (SRELS) and revised 7th edition was brought out in 1987 but unfortunately its not a complete edition and has no index! Colon Classification is published by SRELSEss Ess Publications,  Concept Publishing Co providing text online, 6th Edition of Colon Classification Full Text on KrishiKosh

 

Editions Year
1st Edition 1933
2st Edition 1939
3rd Edition 1950
4th Edition 1952
5th Edition 1957
6th Edition 1960
7th Edition 1987

 

If interested one can check out an example of CC at L’International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO) website.

I for one immediately protested on hearing the suggestion for blanket ban on above listed topics. I responded that I was sure faculty is doing a tremendous job in difficult situation surrounding them with indifferent administration; unsupportive UGC/government policies; lackadaisical students and nonchalant working professionals blaming them. Although, I agreed with her partially and told her as much. I always feel that all the above subjects overview should be provided, so that students know history and various classification systems and that in-depth practicals. Practical exams were not ‘practical’ (pun intended) as where would they apply she asked?

I support teaching CC for following reasons

  1. Because an Indian had introduced it to the world and we as librarians from India should be proud of it! We should ensure that CC is not lost in obscurity in sands of time!
  2. Jobs are available (National and International libraries following CC)
  3. Another reason provided by  Dr I R N Goudar is its application in the Internet era!

On hearing this she demanded to know where CC was implemented and how many jobs were available.

I knew only a couple of libraries that implemented CC as S R Ranganathan had worked in these places – initially as University Librarian at Madras University (1924-1944) followed by Banaras Hindu University where he worked as librarian and professor of Library Science (1945–47) and later again as Professor of Library Science in University of Delhi (1947–55) so had implemented CC in all those libraries.

I Googled to find if there is any list of libraries implementing CC was available online but unfortunately did not come across one! We as library professionals are taught to document our information and make it available. We always do it in work sphere but have never applied it in the Library Science field by listing various aspects of it and making it available online for reference and posterity.

So I posted on IndiaLibraries WhatsApp group and the members responded immediately and listed out the following Libraries in India which follow the CC. Once this blog was posted came across numerous other suggestions which I have incorporated into the compiled list.

The following Libraries are still using CC:

  1. Banaras Hindu University Library, Varanasi (Source: Dr Lata Suresh, Director – Knowledge Resource Centre, Indian Institute of Corporate Affairs, Gurgaon)
  2. CFTRI Library, Mysore (Source: Dr I R N Goudar)
  3. Deccan College, Library, Pune (Source: Dr Achala Munigal)
  4. Delhi University Library, Delhi (Source: Mr Anoop Bisht)
  5. Gujarat Vidhyapeet Library, Ahmedabad (Source: Mrs Geeta Gadhavi, HoD DLIS Gujarat University, Gujarat)
  6. Karnataka University Library, Dharwad (Source: Dr B Ramesha, Professor, DLISc Bangalore University, Bangalore)
  7. Madras University Library, Chennai (Source: Dr Krishnaswamy)
  8. National Aeronautical Library, Bangalore (Source: Mr Ashok Babu, Former Librarian ASL, DRDO)
  9. Podar College Library, Dadar (Source: Dr Jyoti Bhabal)
  10. Punjab University Library, Patiala (Source: Dr Prabhjot Sandhu)
  11. Ruia College Library, Mumbai (Source: Mr Himanshu Aggarwal)
  12. S P Pune Univesity Library, Pune (Source: Ms Durga)
  13. Sanskrit University Library, Jaipur (Source: Mr Umesh Sharma)
  14. Savitribai Pule University Library (Source: Mr Satish Naikar)
  15. State Central Library, Thiruvananthapuram (Source: Mr Thushanth T. L. Librarian Gr 2 State Central Library, Kerala)
  16. University of Kerala Library, Thiruvananthapuram  (Source: Mr Thushanth T. L. Librarian Gr 2 State Central Library, Kerala)

 

The following Libraries followed CC but moving to other classification Systems!

  1. Connemara Public Library, Chennai moving to DDC (Mr Ashok Babu, Former Librarian ASL, DRDO)

The following Libraries Worldwide using CC

  1. Museo Friulano di Scienze Naturali, Italy catalogued by Carlo Bianchini (Source: Claudio Gnoli, Librarian Science and Technology Library, University of Pavia, Italy)

 

Following Department(s) of Library Science in India – Stopped Teaching CC

  1. DLIS, Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth (Source: Dr Priyamwada Shouche-Joshi, Joshi-Bedekar College, Thane(W))
  2. DLIS, University of Pune (Source: Dr Priyamwada Shouche-Joshi, Joshi-Bedekar College, Thane(W))
  3. DLIS, Osmania University (Source: Dr Achala Munigal)

 

Following Department(s) of Library Science in India  – Still Teaching CC Theory Only

  1. DLIS, University of Mysore, Mysore (Source: Dr Shalini Urs)

 

Following Department(s) of Library Science in India  – Still Teaching CC Theory & Practicals

  1. DLIS, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (Source: Dr Achala Munigal)

 

List of dedicated knowledgeable and skilled professionals or expert panel who can advice on CC: Name with Email id.

 

 

For those of you interested in knowing more about CC 

Social Media

Google Scholar

Colon Classification Part-1 

IndiaLibraries Facebook Group on S R Ranganathan and Colon Classification

Websites

http://www.colonclassification.com

Articles 

  1. Devika P. Madalli and A.R.D. Prasad: Vyasa: a knowledge representation system for automatic management of analytico-synthetic system. (Website not working)

 

Books

  1. Khanna, J.K. Colon Classification. New Delhi, India: Ess Ess Publications, 1986.
  2. Kumar, P.S.G. Introduction to Colon Classification, Edition 7. Nagpur, India: Dattsons, 1987.
  3. Parkhi, R.S. Decimal Classification and Colon Classification in Perspective. New York: Asia Publishing House, 1964.
  4. Raju, A.A.N. Decimal Universal Decimal & Colon Classification. Delhi, India: Ajanta Publications, 1984.
  5. Ranganathan, S.R. Colon Classification. Madras, India: Madras Library Association, 1933.
  6. Taylor, Arlene G. Wynar’s Introduction to Cataloging and Classification. 9th ed. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2000.

Note: Request you all to email me at AchalaMunigalRao@gmail.com

  • contribute an entry to this listing.
  • bring any discrepancy to my notice
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Dr Achala Munigal
Asst. Prof. (LIS)/Asst. Librarian
NERTU, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana State
AchalaMunigalRao@gmail.com
http://www.AchalaMunigal.wordpress.com
http://www.twitter.com/DrAchalaMunigal
http://www.twitter.com/IBLibraries
https://in.linkedin.com/in/DrAchalaMunigal

 


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